Die Nepalesischen Maoisten, ihre Ziele und ihr Verhältnis zum Tourismus
Die Nepalesischen Maoisten haben im Februar 1996 die parlamentarische Mitwirkung aufgehört und den bewaffneten Befreiungskampf angekündidigt. Waren es am Anfang nur ein paar Intelektuelle, so haben sie recht schnell, wahrscheinlich zu Ihrem eigenen Erstaunen, besonders im Westen Fuss gefasst und dort eine Parallelverwaltung aufgebaut.
Die Taktik war, die entlegenen Polizeiposten in Guerillaattaken anzugreifen. Da die Polizisten sehr schlecht ausgebildet, bewaffnet und bezahlt sind, war deren Gegenwehr auch nicht sehr erfolgreich. und so wurden
zunehmend ganze Gebiete erobert. In den letzten 6 Jahren sincd ungefähr 1500 Personen von den Maoisten getötet worden. Sie ermordeten auch Privatpersonen und Politiker aller anderen Parteien.
Mitte 2001 trat der eher ungeliebte Premier Koirala zurück, der ein hartes Vorgehen wollte und wurde vom eher konzillianten Premier Deuba abgelöst, der
eine Verhandlunglösung suchte. So kam das land zu einem 4 Monatigen Waffenstillstand, und man spürte ein Aufatmen im Lande. Zugleich schwand die Unterstützung der Maoisten durch die Bevökerung.
Am 24.11.2001 wurde der Waffenstillstand durch die Maoisten gebrochen und viele Regierungsgebäude, Polizei- und Militärposten angegriffen.
Darauf hat die Regierung den Ausnahmezustand ausgerufen.
Die Maoisten verlangen die Abschaffung der Maonachie, eine radikale Landreform und vertreten eine Ideologie vergleichbar der des
“leuchtenden Pfad” aus Peru. Sie nehmen dabei kaltblütig Mord und Gewalt für ihre Sache in Anspruch.
Für sie sind die kommunistische Partei in China revisionistische Verräter.
Artikel der Washington Post vom 7.4.02 über die Hintergründe der Maoistischen Erfolge in Englisch
Die Seite der nepalesischen Maoisten
Artikel: Roter Stern über dem Himalaya , Freitag, Zeitung für Ost-West vom 21.12.2001
Artikel TIME Asia vom 13.5.2002 Return to Zero, englisch, über das brutale Vorgehen der Maoisten.
Die Maoisten und der Tourismus
Folgender offener Brief wurde von Dr.Baburam Bhattarai, einem der Führer der nepalesischen Maoisten am 24.3 verbreitet:
OPEN LETTER TO FOREIGN TOURISTS VISITING NEPAL
from Dr. Baburam Bhattarai, 24-03-02
Dear Foreign Tourists,
Welcome to the country of the roof of the world, and warmest greetings From the materially poor but spiritually rich people of Nepal!
As you very well know, a revolutionary People's
War (PW) under the leadership of Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) is raging in Nepal against a fascist monarchical state since February 1996. After getting severe drubbing from the heroic People's Liberation Army
(PLA.) in every battle front and losing almost all of the countryside to the advancing revolutionary forces, the fast crumbling reactionary regime headed by hated Gyanendra Shah has imposed brutal military
dictatorship under the guise of the so-called state of emergency in the country since November 2001. This last desperate act of the tottering regime to save its skin hasalready backfired on itself and the mass
rebellion in the form of the PW has intensified further in recent weeks and will reach a crescendo in the coming days. It is now obvious that two states, two armies, two laws and two cultures, one representing a
handful of moribund parasitic classes and the other representing the vast majority of the democratic and progressive working people, are engaged in life and death struggle in the country. The United Revolutionary
People's Council (URPC) is an embryonic Central People's Government Organising Committee in the form of a revolutionary
united front headed by the CPN (Maoist). We, therefore, deem it our duty to acquaint you
with some of our basic positions and dispel some canards spread against us by the old reactionary state machinery. What are we basically fighting for? We are fighting for a genuine people's democracy in the country.
As you know, in the current political dispensation in Nepal the real state power vests in the feudal monarchy that effectively controls the royal army, and the parliament is a mere showcase to embellish the
hereditary autocracy. Besides, the self-proclaimed current "king" Gyanendra and his son Paras are known criminalgangsters who have usurped the throne in a bloody coup d'tat against King Birendra last June
Anybody familiar with the Nepalese history will agree that the archaic institution of feudal monarchy is the root cause and bulwark of socio-economic backwardness, abysmal poverty, glaring inequality and
all-roundunderdevelopment plaguing the country, and its abolition is a minimum precondition for ushering in genuine democracy, both political and economic, in the country. When the English could wage war against
their monarchy in the 17th century, or the French in the 18th century, or other civilised peoples in the 19th and 20th century, why can't the Nepalese people do the same even in the 21st century?
And are we
against tourism industry in general and foreign tourists in particular? Nothing could be farther from the truth. We are all for making maximum utilisation of the natural and cultural resources for the rapid economic
development and wellbeing of the country and the people. And given the exquisite natural beauty and rich cultural heritage of the country, promotion of tourism ovbiously comes high in the priority list of the future
economic development policy. As regards the false accusations of our xenophobic inclinations and preference for a closed political system, this is another example of sinister disinformation campaigns deliberately
launched by the counter-revolutionary forces. By ideological persuation we are for the ultimate withering away of all national and state boundaries and creation of a classless and stateless global community of
people. Rather the fake votaries of "globalisation" of capital are mortally against the globalisation of labour as well and hence, in essence, against genuine all-round globalisation. Foreign tourists are,
therefore, most welcome in the country and will be so in future as well. However, we would like to draw your attention to the grossly lopsided nature of current tourism industry in the country and would advise you
to take special precautionary measures while travelling during the period of war.
Firstly, the tourism industry in Nepal is monopolised by the arch-reactionary Shah-Rana family and their close courtiers (for
example, all the five-star hotels and most of the star hotels and travel business are either owned or controlled by them), and most of the earnings from tourism is said to flow back to foreign countries. Therefore
it is quite imperative to smash this anti-people and anti-national monopolistic structure of the tourism industry and foreign tourists would be advised not to patronise such tourism services (e.g., hotels, airlines,
buses etc.) particularly owned by the hated Shah-Rana families. Secondly, during wartime the unassuming traveler can be caught between the crossfire of the contending armies. The foreign tourists are, therefore,
kindly advised notto venture into areas where active fighting is going on. They are most welcome into the revolutionary base areas, which are firmly under the control of the revolutionary forces.
And a few words
to our honoured guests from neighbouring India. Though the reactionary state media cries hoarse about our so-called anti-India posture, you need not be unduly perturbed. Despite the conspiracy of the ruling classes
of both the countries to drive wedges between the people of Nepal and India, we are conscious of the common destiny of the two peoples and are for developing a close and cordial relations between the two. You are,
therefore, most welcome to visit Nepal. And finally, in view of the 5-day long "Nepal bandh" (i.e. general shutdown) from April 2 to April 6, 2002, and the subsequent surcharged atmosphere in the
aftermath, the foreign tourists are well advised to skip the tour itinerary, if any, for the said period. We deeply regret the inconveniences likely to cause to you all.
Wishing you all the best for a future
visit to a democratic, progressive and prosperous people's republic of Nepal,
Dr. Baburam Bhattarai,
Convenor, United Revolutionary People's Council, Nepal
Wie alles anfing, ein Artikel von Karl-Heinz Kraemer 1997
Ein Bericht von BBC am 28.juli 2001 (zum Original Artikel mit Bildern)
BBC South Asia correspondent Adam Mynott is one of the first Western journalists to travel to the mountainous Rolpa district of west Nepal, a stronghold of the Maoist rebels, who told him of their ambitions for
Nepal and the rest of the world.
The village of Holeri is high in the foothills of the Himalayas. It is where the Maoist insurgents in Nepal carried out their most successful attack against Nepali Government forces just over two weeks ago.
Seventy-two police officers were captured and one was killed. More than 50 policemen are still in Maoist custody. We were staying in the home of the police inspector in this village who was captured by the rebels
about two weeks ago. The Maoist leaders, who agreed that the BBC could visit one of their strongholds, were initially cautious but the local committee secretary, who calls himself Comrade Sizal, told me that he
wanted people to know about the Maoist rebellion and what they are fighting for.
Extremely hospitable The rebels fed us and looked after us extremely well. Speaking in a simple hut in Holeri, surrounded by other party members, Comrade Sizal said the Maoists were not terrorists but freedom fighters. He said the current ceasefire between Nepali Government forces and the rebels was not an obstacle to the Maoists' intention to take over the entire country. Indeed he said this would just be a precursor to spreading the Maoist movement throughout the world. When I accused Comrade Sizal of being slightly over-ambitious, he countered that this was a movement on the move. Maoists currently control eight of more than 70 districts in Nepal. They are in effect running these areas, collecting taxes and organising education and health care.
Mass gathering Earlier, Comrade Sizal addressed a mass meeting of more than 5,000 villagers who had come from all over the countryside to listen to speeches about the Maoist rebellion and watch musical entertainment with a Maoist theme. It was an extraordinary sight as long lines of young and old, many clad in brightly coloured local peasant costume, snaked their way up narrow mountain tracks towards the meeting point. As they walked they chanted "Long live the revolution", "Long live Marxism", and "Down with King Gyanendra's regime." It was clear that the sort of Maoist rhetoric that has died out around the world over the last 15 years is alive and well and apparently growing in strength here in Nepal.